In addition, previous studies in developing Xenopus using in situ hybridization Bachy et al. Several previous studies indicate a crucial role of actin dynamics during soma translocation. For this we visualized the microtubule cytoskeleton in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and performed time lapse video microscopy. All injections resulted in large numbers of retrogradely labeled cells in the ventrocaudal striatal area, surrounded by abundant fiber and terminal-like labeling that corroborated a bidirectional connection Figure 6 a. Currently, there are two different hypothesis about the role of DISC1 and Girdin in newborn granule cells of the adult hippocampus. At least three independent experiments were performed and analyzed.

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Microtubules spreading out of the centrosome built a cup-like structure surrounding the nucleus Rivas and Hatten, ; Xie et al. Transfecting MGE cells with expression vectors for shortened murine DISC1 led to a significant decrease in the number of cells in the cortex after 3 days in utero cortex: DISC1 overlaps with microtubules in the growth cone-like structure.

Postembryonic neural proliferation in the zebrafish forebrain and its relationship to prosomeric domains. This effect seems not to be cameda by altered polymerization and dynamic of microtubules.

Together, this work is supporting the hypothesis that subtle perturbations in the developing brain may increase the risk for neuropsychiatric diseases later in life Murray and Lewis, ; Weinberger, ; Cannon et al.

Pubmed Abstract Pubmed Full Text. Dynamic expression of the LIM-homeodomain gene Lhx15 through larval brain development of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. In Nissl-stained material, most cells appear grouped around the ventricle, leaving a j,2001a thick layer mainly constituted by fibers. Selected jl0201a were photographed using a digital camera CoolpixNikon.


The expression of the reporter construct is controlled by the Lhx6 promotor and labels MGE-derived interneurons. Single dynamic filaments reach out of the stable bundles and explore the periphery. We developed a different technique to target cortical interneurons in the embryonic brain.

New York, Plenum Presspp. DISC1 mouse models as a tool to decipher gene-environment interactions in psychiatric disorders. Inducible expression of mutant human DISC1 in mice is associated with brain and behavioral v reminiscent of schizophrenia.

DISC1 knockdown reduced F-actin levels whereas the overall actin level was not altered. Asterisks mark scattered cells retrogradely labeled in the ventral pallium.

Thus, the microtubule network is necessary basically to build the leading process and to act as a guide for the nucleus. We then examined that underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the migration defects of DISC1 deficent interneurons.

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This points to the hypothesis that DISC1 knockdown impairs the actin cytoskeleton in tangentially migrating cortical interneurons, finally resulting in a restricted ability to perform soma translocations, as depicted in Figure 9. Forebrain projections to the hypothalamus are topographically organized in anurans: The identification of the secondary olfactory centers receiving both olfactory and vomeronasal information and their connections with the hypothalamus has served to characterize distinct amygdaloid components in amniotes and anurans Lanuza et al.

While the striatum was considered as a clear subpallial structure, within the amygdala two parts were considered and separated by a ventral cellular prominence vcpthe pars lateralis Apl; currently MeA which was regarded as a pallial structure and the pars medialis Apm of subpallial cp Northcutt and Kicliter, This is in accordance with previous studies which found a reduced number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in a mouse line that expresses the truncated human DISC1, as in the Scottish pedigree Pletnikov et al.

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Ectopic expression of the Dlx genes induces glutamic acid decarboxylase and Dlx expression. Pre-adsorption of the primary antisera camrea synthetic Nkx2. Finally, the scattered Nkx2. In particular, the pallidal component is revealed by Nkx2.

Thus, the influence of DISC1 on neuronal migration appears to be cell type specific and can also depend on the developmental stage of the neurons. According to Kim et al.

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Although swellings arrow heads appeared several times, a soma translocation did not occur. The cerebral hemispheres of Amblystoma.

Injections were placed into the olfactory bulbs, the hypothalamus or the parabrachial area in the brainstem. We recently provided in vitro evidence that during embryonic development DISC1 is a necessary component for the correct tangential migration of cortical interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence MGE to their target regions in the cortex Steinecke et al.

Scattered immunoreactive cells were also detected in pallial camear but in a pattern completely distinct jl200a1 that of the subpallial regions.